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Ancestry of the House of Mewar

Jetra Singh - Jagat Singh I (39 - 57) 1213 A.D. - 1652 A.D.

39. Jetra Singh
1213 A.D. - 1253 A.D.
Delhi of the Chouhans is captured: devastation, plunder and massacre commences. The Turki Sultans of Delhi attempt to subjugate the other Rajput states. Mewar - under Jetra Singh, Tej Singh and Samar Singh - continues to thwart the aggression of the Delhi Sultans.

Till 1303, when Allaudin Khilji lays siege to the mighty fortress of Chittor. Legend has it that he covets Rani Padmini. In the face of utmost adversity, Rattan Singh is unwilling to surrender Chittor or Padmini. There is only one way out for the besieged but courageous Mewaris : the women, led by Rani Padmini, immolate themselves in a huge funeral pyre to find 'security from dishonour in the devouring element'; and the men march through the gates of Chittor for the final assault on the Sultan's army. Chittor is plundered and ravaged by Allaudin Khilji but the honour, pride and chivalry of the Guhilot Kings of Mewar remains unsullied...

Some of the family members were smuggled out of beseized Chittorgarh and sent to the safety of the Aravalli Hills .
40. Tej Singh
1261 A.D. - 1267 A.D.
41. Samar Singh
1273 A.D. - 1302 A.D. Ratan Singh Kumbhkran
42. Rawal Ratan Singh
1303 A.D.
43. Rana Hamir Singh
1326 A.D. - 1364 A.D.
Rana Ajay Singh of Shishoda nominates his more meritorious nephew Hamir as his heir (destined to redeem the glory of Mewar)in preference to his son Sajjan Singh , who in turn shifts to Sattar(Chatrapati Shivaji's ancestor ) (Tod pg.216). Earlier Bapa Rawal also nominates his worthier younger son as heir in preference to less worthy elder son who in turn moves to Gujrat to start the line of Asil Gehlotes(Tod Pg. 197).

In 1326, Hamir Singh regains Chittor and becomes the first ruler of Mewar to use the honorific 'Rana'. A period of relative peace and prosperity begins.

Rana Hamir Singh becomes a bridge to the past, adhering to the principles of trusteeship laid down by Bapa Rawal and restoring the glory of Vedic traditions.

The Guhilots of Mewar adopt the clan name of Sisodia. Rana Hamir Singh emerges as the 'sole Hindu prince of power now left in India : all the ancient dynasties being crushed.'
44. Rana Kshetra Singh
1364 A.D. - 1382 A.D. Verisal Khangra Loona
45. Rana Lakha
1382 A.D. - 1421 A.D. Chunda (Chundawat) Ajaa (Sarangdevot)
A golden age dawns for the Maharanas of Mewar.
Their triumph over adversity, their political will to consolidate the State and develop every aspect of Mewari culture, and the way they are moulding the character of Rajputs is awe-inspiring. The impact of their achievements is still visible, centuries later...

Maharana Lakha proves to be a prolific builder of palaces and temples, a fine patron of the arts, and a developer of the recently-discovered silver and zinc mines. With Chonda, establishing the Chondawat clan, an important precedent is set : the mantle of Rana passes on to the younger son.
46. Rana Mokal 1421 A.D. - 1433 A.D. Sakhra Salkha Bhawnsingh Bhakhat Gajsingh Loona Raghavdeo Dulha Bhanda
47. Rana Kumbha
1433 A.D. - 1468 A.D. Kheema Sua Satta Natha Adu Gadh
Rana Kumbha provides a burst of creative energy and military might which makes Chittor the centre of medieval India. As a builder of forts, he is unparalleled; as a patron and promoter of the arts, he is a trend-setter; and as a military leader, he is supreme.

Rana Kumbha, hailed as one of the greatest military generals of the Sisodia Rajputs, is a ruler of varied talents. A man as intensely committed to literature and music as to the rigours of warfare.

Rana Kumbha reigns for over 30 years, from 1433 to 1468, and consolidates Mewar's independence as a Hindu kingdom. Like his illustrious predecessors, Rana Kumbha is a defender of Mewar's territories, not ready to accept the sway of the Delhi Sultans over Gujarat, Malwa and parts of Rajasthan.

Mewar is invaded several times and successfully defended by Rana Kumbha. In 1437, Sultan Mahmud, King of Malwa, is taken prisoner after a pitched battle and Rana Kumbha demonstrates his magnanimity as a victor. Mahmud is treated as a guest and then released without demands for ransom. The hallmark of Mewari conduct in victory is established once again.

Rana Kumbha is a relentless builder: constructing no less than 32 of the 84 fortresses in Mewar. The monumental fort Kumbhalgarh, named after the Rana himself, is a majestic fort-city with 36 km-long stone walls encircling the hill. But it is in Chittor that Rana Kumbha's most impressive construction is seen: Vijay Sthambh built by Rana Khumba is the so called Victory Tower . The Jain Community built the Keerti Sthambh as a Tower of Prestige, as during Khumba's reign the Jain community also flourished due to peace and protection of the Rana.

Rana Kumbha's vast literary output - dramas in Sanskrit, books on varied subjects like genealogy, grammar, music compositions - underscore his multifaceted talents.

His erudition, his commitment to artistic excellence and his military might make Rana Kumbha one of the greatest personalities, not just of Mewar and Rajasthan, but of medieval India.
48. Rana Ooda
1468 A.D. - 1473 A.D.
49. Rana Raimal
1473 A.D - 1509 A.D.
50. Rana Sanga
1509 A.D. - 1527 A.D. Prithviraj Jaimal Jessa Kishna
The mantle of Rana Kumbha's greatness passes onto Maharana Sangram Singh, known to history as simply Rana Sanga.

With the collapse of power in Delhi, Rana Sanga emerges as the most powerful Hindu King in North India with a direct or indirect sway over the whole of Rajputana. His battles against the Lodhis and the Muslim rulers of Gujarat and Malwa are legendary. He unites the Rajput states and puts up a strong unified defence against Babur's armies. It is a valiant struggle to protect the integrity of Hindu states. The Rana loses the battle but not the principle of independence.

Like the illustrious Kshatriya Kings of ancient Bharat-varsha, the Ranas exemplify the finest Hindu values and traditions in war and in peace: Honour and chivalry; selflessness and respect for humanity.

The pinnacle of prosperity, the heights of valour.
Under the Mighty Sanga, Mewar reaches its apex of prosperity and is controlling, directly and indirectly, a large part of Rajputana.

Rana Sanga is the finest example of the Kshatriya King as the Protector, the Suryavanshi King whose focus is on consolidating and developing his state.

Though the power of Delhi is on the decline, Rana Sanga faces repeated invasions from the Muslim rulers of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa. His powerful army is engaged in battle over 18 times with Muslim forces and the Rana himself is battle-scarred : having lost an arm and eye, been crippled in one leg and suffered innumerable wounds. But his power and spirit is indomitable.

In 1519 after Sultan Mahmud of Mandu is defeated and taken prisoner, Rana Sanga displays the same chivalry and generosity which Rana Kumbha had demonstrated towards a defeated enemy. Mahmud is treated like a guest and his kingdom restored by the Rana who could have easily annexed it.

He takes upon himself to unite the Rajput states into a confederacy. In the Battle of Khanua in 1527, Rana Sanga's armies gain an initial advantage against Babur's forces. But the tides turn against the valiant Rajputs and Rana Sanga is himself wounded on the battlefield. Babur's victory is his stepping stone to founding the Mughal Empire in India and in Rana Sanga's defeat the hopes of a Hindu revival are ruined.

Rana Sanga's loyalty to the Rajput code of chivalry and generosity is legendary. He is regarded as the last Hindu emperor of medieval India who could stand up for the principle of independence and 'rashtra' against the march of the Mughals.
51. Rana Ratan Singh
1527 A.D. - 1531 A.D.
Chittor, the most famous symbol of Rajput resistance, is targeted by Muslim invaders. Dogged by the vengeful Sultan of Gujarat, the descendants of the mighty Sanga find themselves besieged in 1535.

While a safe haven is found for the youngest son of Sanga, Udai Singh, Chittor witnesses the jauhar or self-immolation of 13,000 women led by the Rajmata Karnavati. Courage and honour in the face of utmost adversity is demonstrated yet again by the Sisodia Rajputs.

Chittor is in ruins, plundered and sacked by the Sultan's forces, but more threatening is the conflict within the Maharana's family. Udai Singh, the sole surviving direct descendant of Bapa Rawal, is saved by the heroic act of his foster-mother, Panna Dai. Among the heroes and legends of the Royal House of Mewar, the humble name of Panna Dai is revered for her selfless act of loyalty.

Saved by her, Udai Singh becomes the Maharana and founds the city of Udaipur on the shores of Lake Pichola in 1559. Guided by an ascetic's blessing, he builds the city and shifts the capital from Chittor.

Eight years later in 1567, Chittor is besieged by Akbar's army. It signals the end of Chittor, the seat of power which Bapa Rawal had chosen as the capital of Mewar. Over 30,000 inhabitants of the fort seek and find death in battle, adding yet another chapter in Mewar's glorious history of honourable resistance.
As Chittor is reduced to ruins, Udaipur becomes the centre of the Mewari world, a fabled city secured by valleys and lakes, not reliant on the old system of forts and ramparts.
52. Rana Vikramaditya
1531 A.D. - 1537 A.D.
53. Udai Singh
1537 A.D. - 1572 A.D.
54. Rana Pratap Singh
1572 A.D. - 1597 A.D. Naga Jagmal Kanha Jaitsingh Veeram Raisingh Sagar Amra Siha Panghan Surtan Loonkaran

Machal Masesh

Shaktisingh Jagraj Rudra
Undaunted heroism, inflexible fortitude, pride, honour and perseverance: Rana Pratap exemplifies the noble values and traditions of the Suryavanshi Kings.
When he succeeds as the Rana, the state of Mewar is virtually without a capital, without resources, but it still is a tiny pool of resistance in the vast ocean of the Mughal Empire. Mewar is encircled by Akbar's allies: Marwar, Amber, Bikaner, Bundi acknowledge Mughal supremacy. Only Rana Pratap remains steadfast to his legendary vows that he would never offer obeisance to Delhi as long as it remained under foreign yolk nor even be summoned to Delhi.

The glory of Rana Pratap is inspiration for all times.

Though Chittor is sacked and plundered by Akbar's forces, the spirit of Sisodia Rajputs is unbroken. It is Rana Pratap who still refuses to acknowledge Akbar as the Mughal emperor and vows never to appear in his court in Delhi.

The Maharana's patriotism is his offence. And he suffers valiantly for upholding the righteous principle of sovereignty and independence. The Battle of Haldighati is fought for this principle.

It is on June 18, 1576, that Rana Pratap's forces are pitted against the combined armies of Akbar and the Rajput states who had allied with the Mughals. The Rana's exemplary courage, astride his white stallion - Chetak - is legendary ; the patriotic zeal of his generals like Hakim Khan Sur is awe-inspiring ; and though Rana Pratap retreats into the hills, he leaves the Mughal armies trapped in total disarray. No retreat has ever been more glorious, and for the Mughals, no victory was ever more like defeat.

Rana Pratap shatters the myth of the invincibility of the Mughal Army, and forces Akbar to stop interfering in Mewar's affairs. After years of warfare and innumerable personal hardships, Rana Pratap is able to regain the hereditary territories of Mewar. Proving once again that the Kshatriya code of chivalry is to defend not conquer, to protect not capture territories.

Rana Pratap's obstinate defence of freedom became, and has remained, an inspiration not only for Mewar and Udaipur, but for the whole of India.

Far beyond the confines of Mewar, he is known forever as 'The Light and Life of the Hindu community.'
Bards and historians have found many similarities in the lives of Rana Pratap and Ram, his Suryavanshi ancestor in Ayodhya. Both are men of exemplary courage, upholding their word of honour, living through years of exile and hardship and yet remaining committed to the ideals of Kshatriya kingship.
55. Rana Amar Singh
1597 A.D. - 1620 A.D. Pooranmal Nathji Sahsa Ramaji Hastiji Shyamdas Jaswantsingh Shekhji Kalyandas Chanda Kuchra
Amar Singh succeeds Rana Pratap, and though Akbar leaves Mewar in peace, it is in Jahangir's reign that 17 pitched battles are fought over 10 years. Amar Singh, a true son of his famous father, routs the Mughal forces time and again. But worn down with war and financial losses, Amar Singh negotiates peace with the Mughals.

An honourable compromise between Mewar and the Mughals ushers in an era of peace: energy is devoted into building Udaipur and working for the welfare of its people.
56. Rana Karan Singh
1620 A.D. - 1628 A.D. Surajmal
An abdication, an unusual friendship and peace mark the beginning of a new era.

Maharana Amar Singh abdicates in favour of his son, Karan Singh who, at a young age, has been exposed to cordial overtures in Jehangir's court. With young Prince Khurram, he forges a strong friendship. And when the Mughal Prince is exiled, he turns to the Maharana for help. Jagmandir Island Palace, in the middle of Lake Pichola, becomes a safe haven for him. The Suryavanshi ideal - of helping those in distress, irrespective of religion or past enemity - is upheld by Karan Singh, just as it had been by Rana Kumbha and Rana Sanga.
57. Rana Jagat Singh I
1628 A.D. - 1652 A.D. Garibdasot
Maharana Jagat Singh is credited with being the greatest builder of the dynasty: in his reign, the Jagmandir Island Palace is completed.

Painting too is reaching its pinnacle of perfection in these times. Illustrations of religious books and manuscripts, court scenes and important activities are documented for posterity.

The quest for excellence in architecture and the arts in Mewar remains unparalleled in the history of medieval India.